2009 Human Rights Report: Tanzania







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2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

March 11, 2010

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The United Republic of Tanzania, with a population of approximately 41 million, is a multiparty republic consisting of the
mainland and the Zanzibar archipelago, whose main islands are Unguja and Pemba. The union is headed by a
president who is also head of government; its unicameral legislative body is the National Assembly (parliament).

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Zanzibar, although integrated into the country's governmental and party structure, has its own president, court system,
and legislature, and exercises considerable autonomy. In the 2005 union presidential and legislative elections, Jakaya

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Kikwete was elected president, and the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party (CCM) made signifcant gains in parliament.
Observers considered the union elections on both the mainland and in Zanzibar to be largely free and fair. The 2005

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elections for president of Zanzibar were more contentious, however, with serious irregularities and politically motivated
violence. While the civilian government generally maintained effective control of the security forces, there were
instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of government authority.
There were a number of human rights problems. Police and prison guards used excessive force against inmates and
suspects, and police impunity was a problem. Prison conditions were harsh and life threatening. Police corruption and
violation of legal procedures were problems, and the judiciary was corrupt and ineffcient. The government partially
limited freedom of speech and press, especially in Zanzibar. Government corruption remained a problem, and
authorities restricted the movement of refugees. Societal violence against women and persons with albinism and women
persisted. Female genital mutilation (FGM), especially of young girls, continued to be practiced. Traffcking in persons
and child labor continued.
Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:
a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
Neither the government nor its agents committed any politically motivated killings; however, on occasion security forces
killed civilians during the year.
In May the inspector general of police warned his offcers not to use lethal force; however, on several occasions security
forces used such force against citizens in custody and during pursuit.
For example, on March 27, police shot and killed a taxi driver in Dar es Salaam after mistaking him for a robber.
Bystanders told reporters that the taxi driver was taking a client home when police shot and killed him. Police
investigated the case and turned the fle over to prosecutors, who dropped all charges. However, the offcer died in
custody of natural causes before he could be released.

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